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Literacy is described as the capacity to use written and oral material to work in society and transfer ideas with the intent of achieving one's goals and expanding one's knowledge. Illiteracy, on the other hand, is the failure to read or write sentences or plain words in any language. On the other hand, functional illiteracy is described as having insufficient writing and reading skills to work in society and in some jobs that include reading and writing above the basic level. Any people are completely illiterate, meaning they cannot read or write in any way. Illiteracy among children is a widespread problem in most developing countries. Illiteracy is a major obstacle to the advancement of education in our society. The purpose of this paper is to persuade parents, teachers, and students to combine efforts in ensuring that children write and read proficiently in their early stages of development to attack children illiteracy.
According to recent statistics, in the United Nation's World Education Report, nearly a quarter of the globe's population between fifteen and eighteen years has difficulties when reading. On the other hand, the female population account for 65% of the world's illiteracy (Alamprese, MacArthur and Price 161). Gender bias is a significant contributor to illiteracy. In most cases, male children are usually given the priority in matters of education while the female child is tasked with carrying out house chores. Such biasness and culture hinder the spread of literacy among all the genders. This is bound to have a dramatically negative impact on society and productivity. For instance, women who play a major role in instilling literacy in children should get engaged in special programs that also enlighten them. The campaign to enlighten the entire population on adverse implications of illiteracy should be widespread. Programs that contribute more to the public understanding of the nature of literacy and its importance to the family should be made accessible for every individual.
Moreover, national statistics show that 83% of low-income students are below proficient on the National Assessment Progress reading test and 49% are below basic level (Wagner 752). Such children are at risk of failing to graduate on time because they will not be proficient readers. In today's society, illiteracy leads to joblessness and a greater chance of incarceration. Knowing names of letters and the sounds they represent at the early stages of schooling is the strongest solution to children illiteracy. Understanding the difference between pictures and print on a page will aid these children in the process of learning how to read. Children's ability to detect rhyme will facilitate reading hence promote literacy because rhyming enables children to make use of analogy as they learn to read unfamiliar words. Knowledge of names of letters and sounds will make children proficient in reading by their fourth grade.
High education levels are crucial in enhancing competitiveness of a country. Therefore, childhood literacy remains a matter of concern. A higher literacy rate is essential for any nation to bring it at par on a global platform with other countries. Nations do not look promising if they have a stable economic growth rate but poor literacy rates. In some areas, modern world education is faced with resistance due to the notion that it dilutes culture. Consequently, children of such households do not manage to learn in the contemporary world schools that open their minds to better ideologies (Abar and Loken). Creating awareness and convincing these sections of our society to open their eyes to education is the only way to curb illiteracy and rid people such ignorance. Not only the government but the entire humanity needs to acknowledge the importance of eliminating childhood illiteracy.
Ignorance promotes a high level of criminal behavior. In the juvenile courts, nearly 85% of minors facing trials are illiterate. It shows that there is a relatively close relationship between illiteracy and crime. In developed countries, the degree of functional illiteracy among children and other individuals is proportional to their level of income and inversely proportional to the risk of committing a crime. For instance, in the United States, two-thirds of students who cannot read proficiently by fourth grade have a higher possibility of engaging in criminal activities. Fostering a love of early learning will ensure children's success in school and life because it will enable them to stay on track developmentally and grow as readers and learners. On the other hand, schools should be in the capacity to ensure that all students reach the recommended literacy levels to enable them to comprehend the basic texts and documents. Through this, the society's basic literacy will be boosted.
Another problem of illiteracy is the loss of job opportunities in the marketplace. Jobless people heavily rely on social funds and Medicare to survive. In companies and business centers, losses are attributed to illiteracy among workers. They lack the necessary skills to meet current market requirements. Research finds that functional illiteracy and deficiency of essential competencies in the business leads to low productivity (Thaler 11). Providing levels of remedial training for children and some of the company workers will help solve illiteracy. Through these, workers will be able to compare and compute costs, analyze and interpret tables and observe and compare viewpoints.
Globally, social evils such as child labor, teenage marriages, and the caste system represent some of the scenarios where people in their childhood get to be denied primary education. In most developing nations, child labor is common in households that have low incomes. In such cases, parents aim at increasing their earnings through engaging their kids in child labor. Caste system is still practiced by some Hindu communities (Maqbool 29). Among the Hindu, some teenagers and younger kids are usually prohibited from accessing schools based on their families' social status. The children from less fortunate homes were segregated from the others. Such segregation of humanity contributes to civic illiteracy. Engaging parents and communities will provide a solution to this problem. Families and relatives need to attack illiteracy through creating awareness. On the other hand, implementation of active community and parent based literacy activities will enable families and parents attack ignorance.
In today's globalized world, emigration is increasing steadily. Many individuals relocate overseas to seek better employment opportunities with lucrative allowances. The emigration also contributes to childhood illiteracy since the educated population that could have participated in educating the younger generation would be missing. Therefore, to is mostly considered factual to state that emigration can lower the rate of educational progress in a nation.
Camp reading can be a solution to children illiteracy. Campers should be given one on one tutoring daily, read books at the camp, make crafts associated with the books, play literacy games and write journals and diaries. Camping is useful in solving child illiteracy. Through the camping activities, children will improve their confidence, reading skills, demeanor, and positive thinking. A world literacy day can also be introduced. It will serve to remind students, teachers, and parents that they ensure literacy in childhood. For its efficiency, it must have a deadline. Children must become efficient in either one or more scripts latest by age 18 to reduce illiteracy.
A huge portion of our population lives below the poverty line. Such people do not have access to basic requirements of essential commodities for themselves or their families. According to this population, education is a luxury which they cannot afford. Studies show that over 70% of Americans inmates cannot read above a 4th-grade level (Berkeley, Mastropieri and Scruggs 23). Nevertheless, teenage girls between 16 to 19 years who live at or below the poverty line have below average literacy skills. A significant population of a country is deprived education because it is poor. More children need to be educated on the problem of illiteracy. Programs should be made workable and accessible to them. Providing children with all programs will create a positive trend for this population. The programs help in breaking poverty cycles through eliminating ignorance among the illiterate children.
Additionally, attitude towards learning contributes effectively to illiteracy amongst children. Most children usually underestimate the worth of going to school to acquire knowledge. Their argument is that building a scholarly mind is of no use. Research has shown that low-income households are against encouragements of schooling of children at tender ages since some of these parents wish to engage the kids in labor activities. In the United States, children and roughly 14% of adults are unable to perform simple literacy activities (Thaler 53). Governments should always make sure that the young population, both male and female, gets access to basic education to enlighten them on literacy. On the other hand, progress should be made in literacy outcomes by developing impactful and profitable programs. Adapting programs for multiple languages should also be adopted because they play a critical and casual role in the ordinary acquisition of literacy.
Literacy is essential to tackling a broad range of significant development. However, geographical factors contribute to the illiteracy rate. Families living in remote locations like in the arid desert lands are often cut off from mainstream civilization and all convenient facilities of education. Bringing them out of such areas and enlightening them on the importance of education is a crucial measure. In some cases, it is advisable to try to teach the children in their remote locations so as to avoid any inconveniences. In such areas, teachers should tutor reading to children in schools. In their training, teachers should be instructed on effective reading skills that they pass on to students. Reading will help curb illiteracy in such remote areas because every child before going to the next grade will be able to read and write effectively.
Learning disabilities such as dyslexia and dysorthography lead to illiteracy in both children and adults (Torppa, Lyytinen and Erskine 310). Children with different disabilities usually find it exceedingly difficult to read, write, absorb and remember information. Physical disabilities also inhibit illiteracy, for instance, a blind child will find it difficult to understand without assistance. Donors, NGOs and development agencies could help solve this problem by ensuring all their education interventions assess the impact on literacy acquisition and commit to supporting National Illiteracy Action Plans. Such plans should identify and mobilize a broad range of individuals and institutions within a country that have a role to play in children's literacy acquisition including parents and the community. Plans should include pre-primary and early grade reading and learning targets to ensure that all children especially the disabled learn to read with comprehension by the time they leave primary school.
Poor children have been affected by the replacement of traditional letter by letter methods with whole language activities. Regular letter by letter methods conformed to brain processes while whole language activities reflect common perceptions. Students of consistently spelled languages should learn sufficient reading earlier to avoid interruptions. Modern methods slow down the process of reading leaving students functionally illiterate and must therefore not be used. They, therefore, do badly at or drop out of school leading to illiteracy in most of them. Children who do not read proficiently by their third grade will drop out school. Therefore, a reading club should be started to help keep them and other peers reading. Moreover, developing effective approaches to reading assessment should be implemented by teachers and governments to enhance literacy.
Nevertheless, as population increases, entry into existing learning institutions becomes more challenging. More than 60% of low-income families cannot afford to have books in their homes (Alexander 253). Lack of books at home and low motivation on the importance of reading causes illiteracy among children and adults. Half of low-income fourth graders score below basic levels on United States literacy assessments (Alaxander 253). Better and more books should be distributed to the students.
Lastly, the reading process is universal. Illiterate parents most likely may cause children to have little understanding of matters relating to schooling. do not have the reading and writing skills to reinforce them in their children. Teachers should come up with a National Literacy Action Plan, a comprehensive policy supported by sufficient investment and resources, which drives early grade reading across all sectors both in and out of school. High school students, as well as colleges, should donate a semester to helping the illiterate women and all who are illiterate. Through this, the high levels of childhood illiteracy will be tackled as informed mothers in an exposed society will never embrace ignorance in their young generations. Complex teaching activities should also be avoided so as to activate the perceptual learning function. Children should be taught letter by letter phonics, pattern analogies and give a lot of practice in class. Letters used must be large and spaced to accommodate the brain's visual demands. Letter to letter phonics enhances phonological sensitivity, ability to manipulate the sound structure of a language. Kids who are good at highlighting and manipulating syllables and phonemes have a higher likelihood of learning how to read and write.
Children illiteracy should be brought into consideration to increase the literacy rate. This paper highlights some of the solutions to children illiteracy such as providing more and better books to students, ensuring teachers teach reading, reading practices among others. Enabling every child to learn will help tackle inequalities by making sure that regardless of disability, gender, ethnicity, race or socioeconomic background, every child starts out with basic skill set with which to take on life's challenges.
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