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The measure of the plausibility or credibility of study tests is called validity. Validity, specifically, is the extent to which theory and data support a study instrument's proposed interpretations of test results. (Sireci, 2007). As a result, internal validity, external validity, and construct validity are the three kinds of validity that researchers should take into account.
Validity is essentially a three-dimensional concept. Construct validity, content validity, and construct validity are those. Construct validity is the experimental proof that test results from a research study accurately represent a specific psychological construct. For instance, if the researcher can accurately hypothesize that children from well-off backgrounds will have a high self-esteem that those from humble origins, the test may have a high construct validity.
Content validity is a qualitative kind of validity where the conceptual domain is made clear, and the analysts decide if the measures are fully representative of the field. On the other hand, criterion validity assesses the level of agreement between the test results or prediction of an external standard. It can either be concurrent validity or predictive validity (Sireci, 2007).
On the other hand, criterion validity assesses the level of agreement between the test results or prediction of an external standard. It can either be concurrent validity or predictive validity (Sireci, 2007). Suppose that the test results obtained after testing the self-esteem of pupils in a class correspond to the test results obtained by the state as a whole, the tests have a high concurrent reliability. Finally, construct validity the assessment of how the test corresponds to other variables predicted by either a given rationale or theory. For instance, if the researcher can accurately hypothesize that children from financially well-off backgrounds will have a high self-esteem that those from humble origins, the test may have a high construct validity.
The Process of Test Validation
I would validate a new measure for self-esteem as follows:
I would use construct validity through a differential groups analysis. Herein, I could analyze the performance on the tests comparatively for two groups: one that does not have the construct of self-esteem and one that has the construct. Therefore, if the group with the construct outperforms the other, the result is termed to offer evidence of the construct validity of the self-esteem test (Wall et al., 2004). Alternatively, an intervention study can be applied wherein, a weak in the construct group is taught the self-esteem construct, after that the difference discerned can be utilized to support the construct validity of the test.
In instances where I am expecting a future performance based on the scores that are at present obtained by the measure, correlate with the test scores achieved by the performance. The current score is the prediction while the latter is called the criterion. For instance, in this case, I could use students' GPA in the graduate program to predict their self-esteem.
Besides, I would also carry out role delineation or job analysis to determine the knowledge and skills required of the professionals conducting the test and develop the test specifications (Wall et al., 2004). Afterward, preparation of items which include the specific questions the test will answer and assembling of the test by creating the examination using questions touching on every aspect of the content depending on how specific it is in the blueprint would follow.
After that, I would administer the validity test, observe the process of scoring and equating, and finally, carry out a psychometric analysis which involves reviewing the test to ensure quality and validity (Wall et al., 2004). In conclusion, most of the tests used to measure self-esteem do require that we conduct a validity test to ascertain whether they are valid. The case is unlike that of the school tests where there may be no validity test required to interpret the scores a student get from examination test.
Sireci, S. G. (2007). On validity theory and test validation. Educational Researcher, 36(8), 477-481.
Wall, T. D., Michie, J., Patterson, M., Wood, S. J., Sheehan, M., Clegg, C. W., & West, M. (2004). On the validity of subjective measures of company performance. Personnel Psychology, 57(1), 95-118.
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