Software Development

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In this study report, various software development approaches are introduced and contrasted. The study will assist in recognizing and identifying the approaches that are most appropriate for various circumstances. Those who use software development talents are among the target audience for such reviews. Methodologies that can be used in small projects with few engineers are not attempted to be covered. Readers of this study should make sure that software standards are being applied correctly.

Software development models are used with one or more methodologies to form the research approach. Methodology thus equals model plus method (s).There are three techniques to employ while applying the models and they include; prototyping, clean-room, and object-oriented. The different models which require such methods include the waterfall, incremental as well as the spiral. The techniques should be mixed with each other to come up with the desired software. Also, a project may decide to use a portion of a method without necessary employing all aspects of the technique. For example, a project that employs the use of waterfall model can combine prototyping and clean-room techniques in the analysis and also apply the object-oriented procedure to test the process. There are many methodologies used other than the one which involves the formula; Methodology =model+ techniques.

Waterfall Model

In the earliest dates of software development, codes were written on the machines and then debugged. There was no design for the analysis of the software. The system and debug approach became less optimal, and it was complicated. The plan emphasizes on completion of a developmental phase before proceeding to the next one. In conjunction with the end of some of the aspects, there is the establishment of baselines which freezes products used at that particular developmental stage. During the process, if a need is identified for changing the outcomes a formal process gets followed (Castagna 590). Carrying out a representation of the waterfall shows that it looks like a downward flow of water down a hill or rather a waterfall. In the making of the software, there are reviews done which provide the government with insights regarding the progress of the development.

There are numerous contrasts between hardware and software which the waterfall design assumes. Unlike Software, equipments need no formulations. Analogies on the building of houses make points that projects which use hardware start with an understanding of the requirements when fabrication should begin and changes restricted to inner manufacturing.

Production of hardware requires an understanding of history and experience which is quite expensive than the development of software. Numerous software making procedures have undergone evolution from attempts of engineers to optimize the waterfall model.

The comparison of the waterfall, incremental as well as spiral get influenced techniques which provide a better understanding of anyone trying to make decisions on which methodology to employ.

Waterfall model because of its weaknesses can only get used where requirements, as well as implementation procedures, are correctly understood (Shellnut 56).

Incremental Model

The model performs the waterfall model through overlapping which aims at compensating the length used in the later. The model requires some objectives for it to start with general objectives. Some portions of the broad goals get defined as the requirements which get implemented. Use of explicit purposes rather than elements that are complete pose challenges to the management since some models will get completed long before others get completed. Lastly, there is a tendency to postpone severe problems to the future.

The incremental model can only get applied if the process is too risky to complete at once.

Spiral Model

It shows that capital can get held fixed as the intensity of the ideology grows. The size of the spiral design correlates to the size of the project. The distance between the coils indicates the capital which does not change. There can be the application of prototyping whose main aim is to control costs. The spiral model gets used in aerospace, engineering and defense sectors in projects that are risky.


It is the process of coming up with a replica of buildings for working with systems. It may be used in the waterfall model or the spiral model. It is useful in waterfall models as it demonstrates the feasibility of the process. It can also get used when one wants to understand some requirements of a procedure.


It is a technique which tries to contaminants away from the primary product. The idea of using the method is to reduce costs through detection of software bugs earlier. The model can get used in waterfall, incremental or the spiral models. It gets used with excellent results which have gained worldwide acceptance. The technique also provides software of high quality as its productivity increases. Organizations that desire to use the clean-room technology need designing methods in place and inspection procedures.


It majors on the factual objects in the world. It works under the principle that there prevails the inhibition of humans whose central role is to manage some of the objects. The system is oriented on data, and therefore, its complexity is of less concern. One distinct advantage of the technique is that the owners of the problem can anticipate the answer derivation procedure.



Shellnut, Bonnie, Allie Knowltion, and Tim Savage. "Applying the ARCS model to the design and development of computer-based modules for manufacturing engineering courses." Educational technology research and development 47.2 (1999): 100-110

May 24, 2023
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