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Disability Matrix Assignment in Special Education
The Individual with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) is a federal statute that offers exceptional care to students with disabilities to meet their daily needs (IDEA, 2012). When these individuals are between the ages of three and twenty-one, they are given special education and other similar services to assist them in their studies and other aspects of life (IDEA, 2012). A person becomes eligible for benefits under the IDEA after a free assessment confirms his or her eligibility. They are evaluated to decide whether or not the children are disabled as specified by the IDEA and which kind of services under the IDEA an individual becomes eligible for the services upon confirmation through an assessment which is done free of charge. They are assessed so that the children are proven to be disabled as defined by IDEA and also to determine which kind of services under the IDEA they should be provided with. IDEA has listed thirteen different forms of disabilities under which the disabled children between 3 and 21 years can receive services for special education (IDEA, 2012). These types of disabilities have been discussed below.
1. Autism is the first among these disabilities. The development area for this category of disability is linguistics and social. Autism is, therefore, a developmental disability which particularly affects speech and social life of an individual. Autism is mainly caused by abnormalities in the brain structure (Gray, 2012). The prevalence rate of autism is 1 per 68 children. The main characteristics of autism include; poor academic performance among the affected children, and social detachment (Gray, 2012).
2. Deafness-blindness is a disability which affects simultaneously development of hearing and sight. Development areas are physical (the eyes and ears) (IDEA, 2012). Adverse cases of the disability are known to extend to cognitive development among the affected. The main causes of the disability are age related, genetic conditions, for example, the Usher syndrome, infections spread during pregnancy for example rubella, and cerebral palsy among others. The characteristics of the disability include hearing and sight impairment and in severe situations, emotional disturbance.
3. Deafness is another disability which affects the children’s progressing of language. The disability affects hearing in such a way that the affected is unable to process linguistic information unless it is amplified. The main causes of the disability are; genetic inheritance, viral infections in the ear, and the auditory nerves. The prevalence rate of the disorder is 2 to 3 per 1000 children in the US. The disorder is characterized by loss of hearing and sometimes poor cognitive development.
4. Emotional disturbance is a disability associated with; tendency to develop fear, unexplained inability to learn, general mood swings, and inability to cope with others. The development area for this disability is emotional and sometimes cognitive. The main causes which have been intensively researched include; heredity, diet, family functions, and brain disorders. Prevalence rate is 5.5% of all children with disabilities enrolled in special education program. The main characteristics include; emotional aggressiveness, attention-seeking traits, negative attitude towards work, and antisocial behaviors.
5. Hearing disability (impairment) means the ear as the development (physical) area is impaired and may lack to function either permanently or seasonally. However, hearing impairment has not been included under the definition of deafness. The characteristics of hearing impairment include difficulty receiving information and poor academic performance in schools. The disability has a prevalence rate of 2 to 3 per 1000 children and can be caused by head trauma, exposure to noise, viral infections or disease, malformation of the inner ear among others.
6. Intellectual disability refers to the below average intellectual functioning which is associated with compromised education performance of children who are most affected. The development area for the disability is cognitive. The prevalence of the disorder today is 1.85%. It is characterized by poor academic performance.
7. Multiple disabilities refer to a collection of disabilities together. The development area for this category for disability ranges and sometimes could include all; cognitive, physical, social, and emotional. The causes include abnormalities of chromosomes, premature births, infections, injuries, and poor brain development. The prevalence rate of children with multiple disabilities is ranging between 0.18-1%, and they contribute to 2% of all children under special education program. Children with multiple disabilities show the following characteristics; difficulty moving, cases of penmanship problem, tends to forget fast, and lack high-level thinking capacity.
8. Orthopedic impairment refers to any impairment in the body regardless of what exactly causes it and which has a negative impact on the child’s academic and lifestyle performance. The development area for the impairment is mainly cognitive although other areas may be affected too. The main causes of this abnormality have been described as diseases such poliomyelitis, congenital anomaly, and other causes such as amputations, and burns among others. The prevalence of the impairment according to the current research findings is 68000 of all students receiving special education services. It is characterized mainly by low academic performance.
9. Another health impairment is a condition which means one has less strength, low alertness, and lack of vitality. The development areas for the disorder are both; cognitive and physical. The condition is caused by chronic or sometimes acute health problems for example asthma and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among others. Its prevalence rate among children is 7.5% of all children who are receiving special education services. The abnormality is characterized by the adverse effect on academic performance of children.
10. Specific learning disability is impairment where the child has a problem in one or more basic psychological processes which are involved in the usage of language, writing, and reading. It can manifest itself in many including the inability to read, spell, solve mathematical problems, or even write. The development area for this disorder is cognitive. It is caused by brain injuries, brain dysfunction, developmental aphasia, and dyslexia. The prevalence rate of the disorder as presented by NCDB (2016) is 47.4% of all student receiving special education services.
11. Speech and language impairment is speech impairment for instance; voice impairment, impairment on articulation, and language impairment. The development area of the impairment is cognitive and linguistics, and it is known to cause adverse academic underperformance among the children (IDEA, 2012). The prevalence rate of the impairment according to (NCDB, 2016) is 7.7% of children in the US, and it is characterized by poor communication and academic performance.
12. Traumatic brain injury is a condition where the brain is an injury by an external force hence causing a partial or sometimes total disability to the brain. The development area for the disorder is physical, cognition, language, and sometimes emotion. The prevalence rate of the disorder is 1.1-2.3%.
13. Visual impairment is a disorder in vision which even after correction affects the child’s academic performance. The development areas for the impairment are both physical and cognition. The main causes of this disorder include; albinism, retinopathy, optic nerve atrophy, and optic nerve hypoplasia. The prevalence rate of the disorder among children is 10 per 10000, and it is characterized by poor visual and academic performance.
Gray, D. E. (2012). ‘Everybody just freezes. Everybody is just embarrassed’: Felt and enacted stigma among parents of children with high functioning autism. Sociology of Health & Illness, 24(6), 734-749.
Individuals with Disability Education Act (IDEA). (2012). Categories of disabilities under IDEA. Retrieved on July 8, 2017 from: http://nichcy.org/wp-content/uploads/docs/gr3.pdf
National Center on Deaf-Blindness (NCDB) (2016). 2015 national child count of children and youth who are deaf-blind report. Retrieved on July 8, 2017 from: https://nationaldb.org/pages/show/2015-national-deaf-blind-child-count/2015-national-child-count-of-children-and-youth-who-are-deaf-blind-report
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