The Role of Hotel Management in Embedding Sustainability in the Organizational Culture

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The Role of Hotel Leadership in Embedding Corporate Sustainability in Organizational Culture

The paper provides a critical analysis of the past master's thesis on "The Role of Hotel Leadership in Embedding Corporate Sustainability in Organizational Culture", written by Qui Ly Pham. The analysis is aimed at establishing the effects of altering the research question on the content of other sections of the paper. Some of the research questions are formulated in a way that significantly affects the nature of findings, and this makes it difficult for the readers to establish a connection between the aims of research and the results. Some of the research works also table results that are too general for decision-making. Therefore, alteration of the research question to sound more specific can yield better results that are suitable for decision-making and the formulation of better research questions for further analysis.

Research Design

The paper provides a guide through which researchers can construct efficient research questions and collect precise data. The sections that are discussed include research design, methods, and scope. Other sections that are emphasized are the literature review, analysis, and ethical considerations


The paper provides a critical analysis of the master’s thesis entitled “Embedding Corporate Sustainability in Organizational Culture”, as discussed by Qui Ly Pham. The paper is organized into chapters that critically analyze the approaches that the author used in drafting the paper, and the theoretical considerations underlying the information resented in the paper. The paper takes a close analysis of the topic of research, and the associated main research question, to establish the relationship between the questions and the findings (Zeithaml, 2010). The paper also analyses the formation of research design and the dimensions considered by the researcher while formulating the research design. The theories underlying the topic of research, as used by the author is also analyzed, to aid in validating the methodology used in the research. The paper also establishes the social and scientific considerations by the author that helped in the gathering of information and analysis of the findings. The theoretical frameworks methods are results are then critically analyzed to establish their existing relationship and coherence, and through the analysis, the loopholes in the research are identified.

Research topic and Research Question

The research topic and the associated main question are important since they are the basis through which the researcher establishes the theoretical framework, methodology, and scope of research. The topic and questions determine whether the research ends at the first stage, or whether there is a need to dig deeper into the aspects of the topic, to gather more information.  The relevance of the research topic and its connection to the formulated research questions show the extent of understanding of the researcher, regarding the subject or phenomenon under investigation (Adamson, 2014). The flow and general structure of the paper also show how good the writer has a grasp of the topic under research, and this is indicated by an efficient connection between the sections of the research work.

The researcher delved on the topic: “Embedding Corporate Sustainability in Organizational Culture – The Role of Hotel Leadership”. The research topic can be considered to constitute of two sections, which can independently form sub-topics of research. The two sections include “Embedding Corporate Sustainability in Organizational Culture” and “The Role of Hotel Leadership”. The first segment of the research question has been under research for a long period, and a large pool of information regarding the topic is available. However, the first section is very general as it establishes the relationship between corporate stability and organizational culture. The second part of the research question narrows down the scope of research to the role of hotel leadership in the implementation of corporate sustainability in the hotel sector. The second part of the research question, therefore, makes the investigation to concentrate on one sector of the economy, and this helps in the collection of specific data that can be used in the implementation of specific measures for the improvement of the hotel sector (Adamson, 2014). Since this sector has not been of much interest in research, the topic introduces new concepts that can be of benefit for the improvement of corporate performance of hotels.

The question of research dictates important elements of the thesis, and this further determines the methodology of the investigation procedures. The nature of the question also determines stakeholders in the research work. However, for the investigation to cover a wider scope, and to be more precise in establishing aspects of hotel management, the research question can be altered to read, “How can hotel leadership of Hotel Carter in New York embed strategic management in organizational culture?” The new question replaces corporate sustainability with strategic management since the latter sounds vague and not specific to a particular phenomenon that hotel management can easily quantify, formulate and implement (Balcan, 2012). Moreover, the modified question points at a specific facility of interest, and this makes the collection of information easier. Due to the specificity of the facility of study, the researcher might be interested to know exactly why Hotel Carter is chosen for the research work, and not any other restaurant in the United States of America, or the world as a whole, hence the researcher gets to deeply understand the concept of strategic management in hotels. The modified main research question, therefore, eliminates the ambiguity that results from the generalization created by the original question.

Research Design

A variety of research designs can be chosen for the collection of qualitative and quantitative data, and these may include case studies, comparison, experimental, cross-sectional or longitudinal research designs. Due to the nature of the initial research question, the researcher chose cross-sectional design as the most appropriate for the collection of information. The investigation also involved the collection of different cases from different hotels. However, the modified research question makes case study, ethnographic study, experimentation, and correlation to be the most suitable for the collection of data and information, due to the narrowed scope that makes it convenient to have direct interaction with the members of the organization of interest (Adamson, 2014). The survey, case-study, and naturalistic observation also other designs that can be used to conduct the research. Since the number of a technique for the collection of information is increased, the resultant findings can be more accurate, precise, diverse and many, as compared to the quality and extent of data collected when the original research question is used in the investigation.

The research is done with more of qualitative approach than the quantitative tactic. However, the modified question makes both the quantitative and qualitative approaches equally relevant, due to the large extent of the information to be collected (Adamson, 2014). The resultant findings can, therefore, be extensive and of better quality for the implementation of strategic management techniques, to only in Hotel Carter, but also in other restaurants in the world. Moreover, the limitations of the research are significantly reduced if the modified question is considered for the survey.

The deductive and inductive approaches used in the investigation are very crucial, however, it is difficult to establish the differences between the two, since in most cases, the approaches seem to merge in the way they are applied and the nature of findings (Adamson, 2014). The other approaches that are relevant to the modified question of research, such as the use of case studies, correlation, and direct observation seem to create a clear distinction between the nature of data collected, and the results can be precise enough for proper and effective decision-making. The modified question, therefore, eliminates the ambiguities associated with the nature of information collected using the deductive and inductive styles.

The initial question of research directs the researcher to an extensive and general review of the literature. Moreover, it can be considered that the review is not specific to a management phenomenon, but sustainability in an organization, which is a multidimensional phenomenon. Sustainability in an organization can be considered a subset and a result of strategic management, or just another aspect that relates to the operation of a firm, and not strategic management (Elms, 2010). For instance, considering a case where the machines used in the hotel are outsourced and installed by an external firm, the aspect of sustainability is determined by the nature of the external firm, and not the hotel. However, if the management of the restaurant considers sustainability as an aspect of their organizational culture and as a strategic management practice, the operations of the external firm, as a client of the hotel, are directly influenced by the culture of the restaurant’s management. The literature review resulting from the modified question is not only simplified but also precise to a specific and wider area of sustainability in hotel management.

The review of literature introduces theories related to sustainability in management and its relations to organizational culture, but this can include an unlimited number of theories that cut across different cultures, economic aspect and the nature of management (Eruola, 2011). The initial research question tends to limit the literature review to general theoretical frameworks such as the theory of induction. In another aspect, the question tends to include towards the deductive theories. However, the modified question stages the review to specific strategic management theories, which can be used to analyze and improve the nature of management of Hotel Carter, for the achievement of organizational sustainability a part of a company’s culture.  

Theoretical Basis of the Thesis

The literature review is the theoretical aspect on which the research is based, hence it is the determinant of the nature of research. The literature review indicates the secondary information related to the topic of research and the data can be considered for decision-making to some extent. The review does not only seek the information regarding the topic, but also the findings of earlier research works related to the topic (Nickson, 2013). The review of literature directs the researcher into looking for a variety of information regarding the topic, hence establishes the theories and ideas that are relevant to the theme of investigation. The reader of the final research paper gets easier access to the information that connects the topic or research and the objectives hence can easily relate and understand the notions. The review also helps in the understanding of notions and concepts that underlie the topic of discussion. The review related to the initial question of research is descriptive of the theories of organizational sustainability and its position in the past and present management of the hotels. The review also illustrates the nature of organizational culture, and the discrepancies observed between company culture and sustainability. The researcher explains the recent developments in an attempt to incorporate organizational sustainability in organizational culture.

The modified research question significantly modifies the scope and nature of the literature review by expanding the theoretical framework and specifying the organization of interest. The literature review, therefore, includes the aspect of past and present management system, culture and economic position of Hotel Carter. The review specifies the past and current state of the key performance indicators of the restaurant. The collected information can, therefore, be used for the alteration of the management system of the hotel, to ensure sustainability and its incorporation into the culture of the organization (Angelos, 2017). The recent developments of Hotel Carter can be a basis for decision-making, and can, therefore, be a yardstick for the measurement of the levels of operations of other restaurants.


The findings of the research are obtained from various sources such as the interviewing of the management staff of hotels. Secondary sources such as business reports, publications and reports on websites of different hotels were analyzed for relevant information. The sampling strategy was subjective, though there is limited proof that the non-probability sampling was intentionally considered (Bolderson, 2012). The sampling method is very appropriate for the research work since the investigation only targets the management systems of hotels. The obtained results can, therefore, be considered reliable since all the data obtained relates to the hotel management systems. However, the initial research question and the choice of sample size can be considered biased and not all-inclusive, since the target sample is the manager of hotels. The research questions related to the initial topic of research are also general, hence cannot be used as the basis for the prediction of levels of operations of other firms.

The modified research question is specific to Hotel Carter, hence the research sample can be considered to be subjectively selected. However, since the research is based on the determination of management strategies and their relation to organizational culture, the researcher is directed to ‘why’ Hotel Carter was the only institution chosen for the investigation (Adamson, 2014). The modified question, therefore, improves the methodology by incorporating other stakeholders of the organization into the sample size, and these include clients, support staff and middle-level managers. A broader view of the operations of the firm can, therefore, be established at each level, to establish the extent of strategic management and how it has influenced organizational culture within Hotel Carter. The modified research question also lead to the formulation of straightforward structured interview questions that are specific to the different groups of the research sample. Other than the structured interview questions, the modified question validates the direct use of questionnaires, since the researcher can be in direct contact with the respondents.

Evaluation of the Results According to Social Scientific Standards

The researcher uses semi-structured interviews for the collection of information and assures that the analysis methods can generate reliable and accurate information (Bolderson, 2012). However, the results obtained do not justify the accuracy of information, since the method of data collection is limited to the one-dimensional aspect of the management of the firms. The data obtained should be replicable, yet the replicability of information related to the research cannot be assured. Since the setting of the research covers a wider scope, the results are comparatively many, and this limits the usability of the outcomes in determining the extent of organizational sustainability in the firms, and its relation to company culture. The reader is therefore strained to establish the exact link between the topic of research and the intended purpose. However, there is a sense of integrity in the results since the researcher has put efforts in conducting interviews within a defined sample size. The researcher hypothesizes that the role of hotel managers in embedding corporate sustainability in organizational culture is significant and this is supported by the quantitative and qualitative data obtained (Batista, 2013).

The modified research question introduces a specific aspect of management, for a particular hotel that is chosen as a representative sample. The sample size, methods of data collection and the results are increased and diverse, hence are suitable for decision-making (Adamson, 2014). The diversity of the results can be used to perform correlation, by the application of more analytical statistical methods that can expose the nature of relations between strategic management, organizational culture, and the involvement of managers in embedding strategic management in the culture of a firm. The modified question yields relatively few results that are more usable in decision-making.

The Ethics of the Research

The research done under the initial research question considers respondents from different hotels. The respondents are the top managerial staff of the firms, hence their direct involvement in the management affairs is very crucial for the smooth running of the hotels. The managers are supposed to be attentive to the needs of their juniors and clients, such that the customers do not have a negative experience of the quality of products and services (Zeithaml, 2010). Moreover, managers are subject to personal rights and freedoms. Any interference with the normal daily schedule of the managers needs to be officially approved. Requests for the approval of access to information from the organization’s websites and workers should be made prior to the conduction of research (Fouka, 2015). However, the researcher does not indicate that there were any legal procedures followed to seek permission for conducting the research. The methodology for the modified research topic can include the ethical considerations for the access of Hotel Carter’s website, premises, documentary artifacts and staff. The methodology can also include the assurance to privacy of information and publication of results with the approval of the management of Hotel Carter.


The initial question of the investigation has strengths and weaknesses in the general structure and the way the research is conducted. However, if the question is modified by improving the specificity of the topic and scope of the study, elements of the research are greatly improved. The research design and theoretical framework become specific, and the literature review covers a narrower scope. Due to the reduced number of sample facilities and a precise phenomenon under study, the specific research methods can be used for data collection. Analysis of the diverse data can then be done using more specific and reliable data analysis tools and the result can, therefore, be justifiable and reliable enough for corporate decision making. However, ethical concerns must be considered in any research work, for the investigation to conform to the required formality standards.


Adamson, J. (2014). Questerviews: Using questionnaires in qualitative interviews as a method of intergrating qualitative and qualitative research. SAGE Journals, 1-6. Retrieved from

Angelos, V. (2017). The contribution of Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) in the context of Supply Chain Management .

Thessaloniki: Aristotle University of Thessaloniki.

Balcan, C. (2012). Characteristics of Strategic management in innovation in the field of Hotel management. Iasi: Universityy of Iasi.

Batista, M. (2013). When is statistical significance significant? Pernambuco: University of Pernambuco.

Bolderson, A. (2012). Conducting a research Interview. Journal of medical Imaging and radiatio sciences, 2-11.

Elms, H. (2010). New Directions in Strategic management and Business Ethics. Sydney: Kogod School of Business.

Eruola, O. (2011). Strategic management theory: Concepts, analysis and critiques in relation to corporate competitive advantage from the resource-based philosophy. Lagos: International college of management and technology.

Fouka, G. (2015). What are the major ethical Issues in conducting research? Health Science Journal, 2-6.

Nickson, D. (2013). Skills, organisational performance and economic activity in the hospitality industry: a literature review. Strathclyde: University of Strathclyde.

Zeithaml, P. (2010). Measuring Service Quality in the Hospitality Industry- A Case Study in Hue City, Vietnam. Utrecht: Utrecht University .

January 19, 2024

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