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It is clear that black females outnumber black males in nearly any field of higher education. Currently, black females receive about two-thirds of Bachelor's degrees in the African-American culture (McDaniel, Thomas, Claudia and Uri 892). Similarly, they possess 70% and 60% of all master's degrees and 60% of all doctorates, respectively (McDaniel, et al. 892). In terms of enrollments in large classes such as dental, law, and medical colleges, black females continue to outnumber black males. Although black males and females have equal access to education, the number of black females far surpasses that of black males because of the lack of positive black male role models, employment discrimination, and school disciplinary problems.
The absence of positive role models among black males results in reduced enrollments in schools. Research indicates that the absence of positive role models is experienced more by black males compared to black females (Frierson, Willie and James 91). Many young black males lack individuals to motivate them in homes and schools (Frierson, Willie and James 91). For instance, individuals who would have motivated and inspired black males to complete college or university education are incarcerated. Black males have a high risk of incarceration since most of them are involved in unlawful activities (McDaniel, et al. 904). Therefore, due to the high number of black males in jail, there is no one to motivate and encourage young black males to pursue good courses or enroll in colleges and have a bright future.
Second, black males see themselves experiencing employment discrimination that is more severe compared to black females. Many young black males believe that after completing college or postgraduate degree, they will face employment discrimination; therefore, completing school would not benefit them (McDaniel, et al. 893). In a corporate management dominated by white males, black males are perceived as a threat to the organization. The unclear prospects of black males to advance in the corporate world indisputably frighten their educational aspirations. The advantage black females have in educational attainment is that they are more favorable in the job market. Additionally, the corporate mentality on black females is that they are a double minority thus encouraging them to pursue higher education. Statistics show that black females hold approximately 60 percent of all top jobs occupied by African-Americans (McDaniel, et al. 894).
Third, black males experience higher school disciplinary problems. Incidences of behavioral issues and assertive behaviors that black males get from homes and playing grounds are usually considered negative behaviors. Disciplinary problems among black males result in higher rates of suspension or expulsion from schools, which discourages them from completing their college education (McDaniel, et al. 906). Similarly, with assertive behaviors, black males tend to have poor non-cognitive skills that include the inability to discuss and work with colleagues, pay attention and work on assignments. The low non-cognitive skills and disciplinary problems among black males decrease college attendance and the probability of a student to graduate.
In conclusion, the number of black females surpasses the number of black males enrolled in college because black males lack positive role models, encounter school disciplinary problems, and they see themselves experiencing job discrimination that is extreme compared to black females. The higher education advantage black females have relative to black males results in demographic, economic, and social effects. The growing population of black males will experience low employment opportunities and low marriage rates, which will affect family formation. The government and learning institutions should initiate programs that empower black males to attain education and reduce negative perception on employment.
Frierson, Henry T, Willie Pearson, and James H. Wyche. Black American Males in Higher Education: Diminishing Proportions. Bingley, UK: Emerald, 2009. Print.
McDaniel, Anne, Thomas A. DiPrete, Claudia Buchmann, and Uri Shwed. "The black gender gap in educational attainment: Historical trends and racial comparisons." Demography 48.3 (2011): 889-914.
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