Research Study Methodology & Data Collection Methods

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Centered on three research issues, the present thesis was structured to perform research in order to provide a data report on leisure shopping (marketing, retail management, and tourism).

What are the best-selling items in travel specialist stores, such as arts and crafts or specialty food and beverage?

What are the primary characteristics (factors) that influence a shopper's decision to purchase a product?

What kinds of items do visitors want to buy?

Business students at James Cook University in Townsville produced and completed a questionnaire with the above-mentioned question in mind. The students were engaged with a questionnaire to study, understand and perform some field activity by spending time with tourists on weekends, as a part of the project. It was a descriptive study conducted to have a better understanding of tourists, their shopping interest, and benefits in the retail business via making a thorough quantitative analysis through obtained results. The study was performed to allow researchers to critically examine the characteristics in this situation.

The survey was designed by researchers, to provide clear objective answers. The survey was then administered on field sites. The basic statistics were generated using the statistical analyzing software. Researchers were required to select the most appropriate answers to the above-mentioned questions to generate both the quantitative and qualitative data. Once the data was collected, it was managed, analyzed and presented in the form of results.

A cross-sectional approach was adopted to perform the survey by using questionnaires, which have been a good method of data collections with a provision of better understanding. The self-administered methods were used, following the ethical behaviors of no forced participations in the survey. The personally administrated surveys were limited to the local area of the survey sites, generally having a higher response rate, however, taking more time and efforts.

The principles of wording were considered when designing the questionnaire. All questions were appropriate to the research problem and carefully designed in order to ensure no ambiguous, leading or double-barrelled questions. The type of questions and their sequencing were logically planned. Minimal personal data was asked of the respondents, ensuring anonymity, without compromising the level of detail required by the study.

The Sampling Process

The target population for this study was international tourists and travelers. A probability design was used as a tool for sampling to communicate and gather information. The sample size was pre-determined as via statistical methods, in round figures of 1112, with allocated date, time and site of sample collection. The formula used in deriving the sample size is:

Howeverv, around 10% of theis samaple sisze was ultimateley used in the stsudy. Therfeore, 100 participants were involved in the study. This proportion represents an acceptable proportion of the calculated smaple size for a rapid study such as in a cross-secetioanal survey type (Backstrom, 2011). Stratified random sampling was used to arrive at the sample population. The stratification ensured equal representation of major demographics namely nationality, gender, and personal preferences (Oguz & Cakci, 2010). This population had the survey of both open and closed ended questions. The respondents were met at their convenience to answer the survey quotations.

Sample Overview

From the sample of 100 participants, the mean age was 41.53 years with a median of 41 years. The modal age was 18 years, as in Table 1. These respondents were aged above 18 years with the highest being 78 years, as shown in Table 1. The range of ages was 64 years from the youngest to the oldest participants as demonstrated in Table 1. The means, median, mode, range and standard deviation for each of the various leisure shopping destination by type are also shown in Table 1.

Table 1

Descriptive Statistics

Variable N Mean Median Mode Std. Deviation Range Min. Maxi. Age 100 41.53 41.00 18 16.941 64 14 78 Duty-free shops 100 2.32 2.00 3 1.556 5 0 5 Shops in and around attractions 100 2.90 3.00 4 1.624 5 0 5 Urban shopping precincts 100 2.35 3.00 3 1.452 5 0 5 Shopping malls/centers 100 2.28 3.00 3 1.525 5 0 5 Markets 100 3.68 4.00 5 1.510 5 0 5 Shopping in small towns/villages 100 3.76 4.00 5 1.505 5 0 5 Direct outlet shopping 100 2.68 3.00 3 1.595 5 0 5 The comparison of the various leisure shopping destinations is better expressed in a bar graph as in Figure 1. Towns and type two markets have the highest mean and median visitors followed by malls, urban centres, and outlets and duty shops, as in Figure 1. The least visited shopping destination is the duty free shops, as in Figure 1.

Figure 1: Descriptive statistics for the variosu shopping destinations by type

_x000e_Results and Discussion

According to the survey, obtained results provided a variety of qualitative and quantitative data information gathered in the questionnaire.

Research Question 1

The first research question is _x0091_What are the best-selling products among arts and crafts, or specialist food and beverage in tourism specialist retail?_x0092_ To answer this question, the list of themes and styles were picked up from the questionnaire are detailed below. It is important to understand the how people understand and responds to the questions. Therefore, to make the result easy, they were asked to provide answers toeach question based on their interest and understanding a mark on a scale of 1-5, describing their likeliness as not all appealing to very appealing respectively. The results were analyzed on statistical software by sorting the categories and frequency on the basis of likeliness.

According to the results of Table 2, the best selling products are _x0093_special scenery or environment_x0094_ and _x0093_access to national parks & wilderness_x0094_ (49%, n = 49) in each case, as in Table 2. This means that leisure shoppers will only visit and buy mostly from the markets that have these facilities, as in Table 2. Then, the nest best selling products is _x0093_local history & heritage buildings_x0094_ (44%, n = 44). The least selling product is _x0093_music, theatre & performances_x0094_ (37%, n = 32), as in Table 2. The rest of the products rank as given in Table 2. Therefore, businesses targeting leisure shoppers must have these facilities to flourish in the industry (Oguz & Cakci, 2010).

Table 2

Best Selling Products According To the Survey

Category Frequency (n) Proportions (%) Local history & heritage buildings 44 44 Ethnic settlement history and heritage buildings 43 43 Special scenery or environment 49 49 Access to national parks & wilderness 49 37 Music, theatre & performances 37 37 Local food & wine / drinks 42 42 Local arts & crafts 38 38 Antiques 40 40 Research Question 2

The second research question which was focused on the study was _x0093_What are the major characteristics (factors) influencing shoppers_x0092_ choice of purchasing a product?_x0094_ To understand the results the respondents were given another group of question focused on the reasons for their visits to the villages, importance and Hahndorf performance to analyze the results. Similarly like, the previous question, they were asked to rate their interest on the likelihood of 1-5 as not all important to very important for decisions and very poor to exceptional for hanhdorf. And the same were analyzed for statistics and described in a table below.

The most vital reason or factor for visiting the villages is _x0093_village atmosphere_x0094_ (45%, n = 45), as in Table 3. This reason is followed by _x0093_escape the city_x0094_ and _x0093_somewhere to relax_x0094_ and _x0093_local products to buy_x0094_ at 43% (n = 43) each. The least factor is _x0093_show others around_x0094_ at 26% (n = 26). The medial reasons are also as shown in Table 3. Therefore, businesses that rely on the leisure shopping must ensure that they have the most vital factor that drives the buyers to the villages (Oguz & Cakci, 2010).

Table 3

The Most Important Reasons and Associated Factors to Visit the Villages

Category Frequency (n) Proportions (%) Village atmosphere 45 45 Quiet day out 34 34 Be with friends 31 31 Cheap prices 40 40 Local products to buy 43 43 Show others around 26 26 Escape the city 43 43 Somewhere to relax 43 43 Special events 29 29 Learn about the place 35 35 Meet local people 32 32 Products unique to the region 38 38 See a particular attraction 32 32 A good place to be with family and friends 36 36 To see local products being made 38 38 Research Question 3

The third question which was focused on the study was _x0093_What type of products do tourists like to purchase?_x0094_ To understand the results the respondents were given another group of question focused on the characteristics and importance of the provided factors in support of their visits to villages. They were asked to provide their answers on the scale of 1-5 not at all important to very important on the basis of their likeliness (Lin & Pao, 2011). As per their provided answers, the data was sorted and analyzed statistically to provide a descriptive a quantitativeanalysis of the research.

The important characteristics of the shopping experience that matter to the shoppers was also investigated. The most vital feature for the experience is the _x0093_attitude of sales staff_x0094_ (56%, n = 56), followed by _x0093_neatness and cleanliness of shops_x0094_ (49%, n = 49), as in Table 4. The least desired experience among shoppers are _x0093_physical layout of shops_x0094_ and _x0093_opening hours of shops_x0094_ (34%, n = 3) each. The rest of the characteristics of shopping experiences are also displayed in Table 4. Businesses in the leisure shopping industry must observe the positively rated characteristics of their shops to excel (Backstrom, 2011; Lin & Pao, 2011).

Table 4

The Important Characteristics of Shopping for the Visitors in the Villages

Category Frequency (n) Proportions (%) Physical layout of shops 34 34 Window display 37 37 Opening hours of shops 34 34 Neatness and cleanliness of shops 49 49 Variety of product selection 40 40 Choice of payment methods 38 38 Language ability of staff 36 36 Attitude of sales staff 56 56 Efficiency of sales staff 45 45 Price of product 38 38 Value for money 45 45 Availability of regionally distinctive products 43 43 Research Question 5

The fourth question asks _x0093_overall, how satisfied are you with your experience?_x0094_ This question summarizes the experiences of the leisure shoppers. It carries their overall rating of the shops, the people, and the products. In fact, most of the responses were optimally positive in rating the experiences by stating that they are _x0093_very satisfied_x0094_ with the services as indicated inn Figure 1 in which _x0093_1_x0094_ represents _x0093_very satisfied._x0094_ It, therefore, means that majority other businesses have the desired qualities explained to matter by customers in the above sub-sections.

Figure 2: The Overall Level of Satisfaction with the Leisure Shopping Experience


Backstrom, K. (2011). Shopping as leisure: An exploration of manifoldness and dynamics in consumers shopping experiences. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services 18, 200-209. DOI:10.1016/j.jretconser.2010.09.009.

Lin, C., & Pao, T. (2011). Leisure activities_x0092_ selection and motivation. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 1(3), 308-320. Retrieved from

Oguz, D., & Cakci, I. (2010). Changes in leisure and recreational preferences: A case study of Ankara. Scientific Research and Essays, 5(8), 721-729. Retrieved from

November 09, 2022

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