Summary of the Most Recent Scientific Article

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According to a study undertaken by the Allen Institute for Brain Science, the human brain is growing more diversified (Laura, 2017). This is due to the identification of a subset of neuronal characters responsible for our thoughts, dreams, and memories as a result of their research. It demonstrated that a pyramidal cell neuron contains a thick branch of dendrites that gather signals from nearby neurons. The cell's axon sends messages to neighboring cells, stimulating them to move. This information was reached at after a thorough study was carried out on approximately 100 nerve cells which were taken out of 36 patients as they underwent surgery for various conditions like epilepsy and brain tumor (Laura, 2017). The live cells ware collected from a brain tissue that is usually eliminated as unnecessary waste material. The new collection of neurons that have been discovered by the researchers have a high potential of helping searchers to deeply understand the specific details of the many functions and roles that neurons play in the brain (Laura, 2017). One of the neuroscientists who participated in the project described the neurons to appear like the branches of a tree and to be incredibly complicated compared to similar cells in a mouse. The data to be collected on the newly discovered cells has scarcely been collected from people’s live cells. Researchers have however collected it from animals like mice (Laura, 2017). This information is according to the most current research that was published on November 9, 2017.

Summary of the Original Scientific Article.

According to the findings on research on the human brain nerves that existed up to May 1999, the human brain could not repair itself due to the lack of stem cells that allow neural regeneration (Gerd & Fred, 1999, (Volume 280, Number 5, )). As much as the human brain can reimburse for the damage immediately, most neurobiologists firmly believed that it could not repair itself until when they found data suggesting the probability of stem cells making new neurons in another part of the brain, and could be living inactively in other places. They felt that the adult brain that poorly repaired itself had a high potential for neural renewal. They had a goal of learning how to stimulate existing stem cells to produce a useful number of constructive nerve cells in the parts of the brain that they had selected (Gerd & Fred, 1999, (Volume 280, Number 5, )). They aimed to treat the deadly neural disorders caused by neural damage. Since 1965, there were hints that the human brain could regenerate itself, but there was no substantial evidence to support neurogenesis in rats that the research was carried on. However, the hints were not given much consideration as the methods used in the study could not give an accurate estimation of the number of the neurons undergoing renewal and could not substantially prove that the cells were neurons. The idea of brain stem cells had not yet been introduced and there was no evidence of neurogenesis from monkeys orb apes (Gerd & Fred, 1999, (Volume 280, Number 5, )). In 1980, Fernando Nottebohm discovered the occurrence of neurogenesis in the areas of the brain responsible for learning songs. This discovery reawakened the interest of researchers on neurogenesis in adult mammals. However, logic too argued against neural renewal in the human brain as neurogenesis was increasingly restricted all through evolution as the brain increased in complexity (Gerd & Fred, 1999, (Volume 280, Number 5, )).

A direct study of people is what can give an apparent indication of whether the human brain is capable of neurogenesis (Gerd & Fred, 1999, (Volume 280, Number 5, )). The researchers felt that a study on people was impossible as the methods used to reveal regeneration of neurons in animals appeared not to be appropriate for human beings. The study on human beings appeared particularly tricky because the location of the stem cells that could evolve needed to be determined, and their neurons could send and receive messages correctly. The new neurons in the brain are similar to the regenerate counterparts making it almost impossible to prove neurogenesis (Gerd & Fred, 1999, (Volume 280, Number 5, )). The scientists believe that if they continually worked hard, they would trace the molecular cascades that caused specific stimulus which would give them crucial information for neural regeneration. The expected benefits of discovering the brain’s regenerative potential justify the efforts the neurons discovery will require.

# Question 1

In the Original article, there is a speculation an aspect of polio fatigue which is related to brain damage is currently expressing itself. People would wish to help PPS patients by finding a way to activate stem cells in the area that has been damaged by polio (Gerd & Fred, 1999, (Volume 280, Number 5, )). However, the activation of the stem cells seems impossible because it could involve adding neuro-regenerative chemicals directly into the brain which is quite complicated and ethics require that human beings should be protected from adverse reactions.

It is believed that the research will improve the understanding about Polio for instance; people would like to know why some people with polio develop PPS while others do not. Moreover, also why some people have more durable motor neurons or can be induced to regenerate damaged neurons better than other (Gerd & Fred, 1999, (Volume 280, Number 5, )). There is a high possibility for the answers to these questions to be found as authors are studying the persistence of some nerve cells and their renewal. There is a report that theoretically there are some stem cells which have the potential of developing into spinal motor neurons, but it has not been confirmed in primates. This is because the researchers and scientists do not know how to induce stem cells into the spinal cords to regenerate any neuron and if it can be done it needs high regulation (Gerd & Fred, 1999, (Volume 280, Number 5, )). Also, it is a fact that muscles at the end of the neurons have been emaciated and there is doubt that they can do their work correctly again.

The latest article has interest the general population because it is a very import discovery that has long been awaited and the discovery is believed to bring a complete turnaround to science. The neurons that have been discovered are believed to help the researchers to discover more detailed functions of the neurons.

# Question 2

In the most current article, the research done revealed the presence of a partial cast of neural subjects that are responsible for human beings thoughts dreams and memories. One of the partial neural characters found is a pyramidal cell which has a vast network of dendrites that collect signals from it (Laura, 2017). These findings are contrary to the results of the research that had been carried out earlier. The discovery is utterly fantastic as it gives new hope and it is worth being recognized and applauded by everyone.

In the original article, Fernando Nottebohm discovered that neurogenesis occurred in the parts of the brain responsible for learning songs. He and his co-workers elaborated that neuron formation in the hippocampus of adult chickadees went up in seasons that required the bird’s memory system to be efficient (Gerd & Fred, 1999, (Volume 280, Number 5, )). This discovery was short-lived because around the same period, Pasko Rakic of Yale University and his associates studied neurogenesis in adult primates and failed to find new brain neurons in adult rhesus monkeys.

# Question 3

The most current article reflects its results accurately because the research was done on 100 live nerve cells from 36 different patients. The researchers analyzed their shape and function, and some of them underwent deep microscopy (Laura, 2017). The cells underwent tiny zaps of electricity to allow the researchers see how the neurons communicated with other nerve cells in the brain; these resulted in detailed and accurate research.

In the original scientific article, the animals were injected with a traceable material that gets integrated into their DNA which is inherited in the daughter cells and by future descendants of the original dividing cell. After a while, they specialize to become different types of neurons. When the brain is cut into sections, cells that retain the marker are assumed to have differentiated into nerve cells (Gerd & Fred, 1999, (Volume 280, Number 5, )). This investigation does not give accurate results as there are too many assumptions and the experiment is done on animals and not human beings.

# Question 4

DNA- Deoxyribonucleic acid

PPS - Post-polio syndrome

Brd U- bromodeoxyuridine

# Question 5

The current scientific has overstated their claim. As much as they have done their research in the proper and accepted way, they have however not proved beyond doubt that the results of their research hold and their research has also not been approved by an internationally recognized scientific research body (Laura, 2017).

The original scientific article has not overstated its findings from its research. They are very clear when they say that their discoveries have not been proved to hold in adult primates, and have not been done in human beings as they lack that ability to perform their experiments on human beings (Gerd & Fred, 1999, (Volume 280, Number 5, )).


Gerd, K., & Fred, H. G. (1999, (Volume 280, Number 5, ), May). New Nerve Cells For the Adult Brain. PPSC DISCLAIMER, p. page 48.

Laura, S. (2017, November 9). See these first-of-a-kind views of living human nerve cells. BBC .

April 26, 2023



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