Syafiq's study

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Syafiq's study's object and characteristics are primarily focused on locating a categorical, individual range of data collection from website users. The artifacts are focused on website visitors' emotions, perceptions, memories, and a variety of other qualities that are difficult to quantify and interpret (Sekaran & Bougie, 2013). The study's features are based on the aggregation of non-numerical data, allowing for the use of a proper scale in transforming the data into numerical data that can be efficiently processed and analyzed. The subjects are often discrete data made up of finite and constant numbers. The object measurement bases on well precisely set and pre-specified set of rules that closely gauge the effect and importance of the values measured (Sekaran & Bougie, 2013). The research aims at investigating unknown behaviour of the websites visitors and thus can aid in swaying the study in a certain path.

The measurement of abstract and subjective characteristics is more difficult than the measurement of other, more tangible attributes

The measurement of more abstract and subjective characteristics is difficult than the measurement of other, more tangible attributes such as weight, length, gender, age, and marital status since due to the need of setting up scales such as the Likert scale to rate the various units value. The setting up of scales such as Likert scale and nominal or abstract and subjective data measurement demands unique and skilled modeling of the scale (Sekaran & Bougie, 2013). The common example is the use of the five-point Likert scale which allows for the selection of the levels that changes with the intensity of a respondent_x0092_s passion or feeling. Measurement of feeling, perception and other non-numerical attributes is extremely useful and imperative but is always hard and complex on reaching the exact measure of the values (Sekaran & Bougie, 2013).

a. What is operationalization?

Operationalization is the technique of rigorously defining abstract variables into quantifiable factors and units. It highlights and outlines indistinct concepts and thus allowing such variables to be effectively measured both empirically and quantitatively (Sekaran & Bougie, 2013). The abstract values cannot be analyzed statistically and graphically to enable reach a consensus on the determined final value. It is the process of converting descriptive data into numerical data.

b. Describe the process of operationalizing variables

Operationalizing Variables such as abstract variables demand the establishment of scales and Indexes as such Scales and Indexes must be designed in a way that they allow for classification of such variable into classes (Sekaran & Bougie, 2013). The constructed classes are easy and effortless for the website visitor to select his or her level of the measurement unit. The class developed must highlight Variable_x0092_s apparent dimension. The common example of scale is Likert where respondents can choose _x0091_strongly disagree_x0092_ equal to 1, _x0091_disagree _x0092_ equal to 2, _x0091_neutral _x0092_ equal to 3, _x0091_agree_x0092_ equal to 4 and _x0091_strongly agree _x0092_ equal to 5. The obtained values are then analyzed statistically through data analysis and be able to present a determined value to for correct inference and conclusion (Sekaran & Bougie, 2013).

which dimensions of _x0091_Information Quality_x0092_ has Syafiq found in the literature and how have these dimensions further been broken into elements by researchers who have investigated this issue in the past?

The dimensions of _x0091_Information Quality_x0092_ that Syafiq found in the literature are privacy, system accuracy, system reliability, accuracy, information content, relevance, up-to-date, understandability, and completeness. These dimensions have further been broken into elements by researchers who have investigated this issue in the past into the several questions. The questions require answers such as the value of usage, website level of performance and clarity, trust and usefulness amongst many befitting elements (Sekaran & Bougie, 2013).

5. Syafiq could decide to use the survey questions he has found in the literature as a basis for his questionnaire. Is it, in general, a good or a bad idea to use existing scales? Why?

If Syafiq decides to use the survey questions he has found in the literature as a basis for his questionnaire it may be both good and a bad idea to use existing scales. The generation of a new scale allows for proper customization of the scale in accordance to his or her desires. Creation of a new scale allows him or her to eliminate ineffective or outdated segments in the scale. The demerits or creating a new scale includes time consumption and difficulty that it comes with in classifying questions (Sekaran & Bougie, 2013).

The merits of using former scale are that the researcher can work faster and even troubleshoot possible emergent errors from the earlier research. The researcher can also compare the present and past data findings collected from the data collection process. The research should know that even if the same scale is applied, findings will not be same or equal as previously conducted (Sekaran & Bougie, 2013).


Sekaran, U., & Bougie, R. (2013). Research methods for business: A skill building approach (6th ed.). Chichester, United Kingdom: Wiley. ISBN: 978-1-119-94225-2.

November 09, 2022


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