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a) How does your baby's eating, sleeping and motor development compare to the typical developmental patterns?
Importantly, Brandon did not have difficulties in learning how to feed. Furthermore, he was satisfied with his daily meals thus assuming his eating development was similar to typical development pattern of a baby. His sleeping time is 3 – 4 hours during daytime and approximately 6 hours sleep at night. Furthermore, his motor development skills included sitting up, crawling, and standing up. Generally, his development patterns were similar to typical babies of his age.
b) At 8 months of age was your child an "easy", "slow-to-warm-up", or "difficult" baby in terms of Thomas and Chess's classic temperamental categories? On what do you base this judgment?
Brandon was an “easy” baby. He was friendly to almost everyone including strangers. When he is not having any health problems, Brandon smiled at people, pets, and sometimes to toys. However, he was noted to be a problem when he needed something such as toys and food.
c) How is your child's attachment to you and your partner developing? What is happening at the 3-month and 8-month periods that might affect attachment security according to Bowlby and Ainsworth, and various research studies?
Since he was born, Brandon’s attachment to me and my partner was an evident. However, he had a stronger attachment to his mother compared to me. Mostly, the attachment developed during his breastfeeding period. Concerning Bowlby (1977) theory, at the 3-month period, Brandon developed a secure attachment in that he would cry when his mother is not on his sight.
Case Study 2 (8-18 months)
a) Describe and give examples of changes in your child's exploratory or problem solving behavior from 8 through 18 months and categorize them according to Piagetian and information processing theories. Note that 8 months is included, so you'll need to use the time-line to look back at 8 months for examples.
At the age of 8 months, Brandon was an active crawler. Between the ages 8-18 months, he was able to discover hidden toys when we played hide and seek. On this development period, Brandon was able to utter new words especially at the age of 12 months.
b) Analyze your baby's temperament in more detail at 18 months than you did at 8 months. How would you describe your baby in terms of the five aspects of temperament utilized by the Virtual Child program (activity, sociability, emotionality, aggressiveness vs. cooperativeness, and self-control)? Has your baby's temperament been stable over the first 18 months? A blurb defining and providing examples of the five aspects of temperament is provided at 12 months, but you should seek out further explanations of temperament from your textbook. Explain how the concept of goodness of fit (also discussed in the blurb on infant temperament) applies to your interactions with your child.
i. Activity – Brandon grew up very active. He did not tend to wake up very early in the morning. It showed that he was compatible with his temperament especially in the early months.
ii. Sociability – mostly, Brandon would become upset when handled by children. However, he was friendly to all adults especially his family members.
iii. Emotionality – between ages 10 – 18 months, Brandon’s emotionality was noted to minimize. Nevertheless, at the age of 18 months, he would be irritated when in company with children.
iv. Aggressiveness v. Cooperativeness – when playing with his toys, Brandon was very peaceful. However, he would become aggressive when someone tried to distract him.
v. Self-control - despite having issues with emotionality, there were no notable instances of lack of control.
c) Were you surprised by anything in the developmental assessment at 19 months? That is, does your perception of your child's physical, cognitive, language and social development differ from that of the developmental examiner? Give specific examples. If you were not surprised, write instead about some aspects of your child's development that need the most work.
Initially, I assumed that Brandon was progressing well during the development period. However, at the assessment, I was surprised to note that he was lagging behind in developing his motor skills. The examiner hinted that he required more interaction time with other babies.
Case study 3 (2 ½ years)
a) Have there been any environmental events in your child's first 2 1/2 years that you think might have influenced his or her behavior? On what do you base your hypotheses?
At the age of two and a half years, Brandon was playing were playing with his cousins near the children swimming pool. Accidentally, one of the cousins pushed him and fell in the pool.
b) How is your child progressing on typical toddler issues, such as learning household rules, learning to follow routines, listening to you, developing self-control and learning to get along with other children?
Importantly, Brandon had no listening issues. He would adhere to any caution given by adults. However, while playing with his age mates, Brandon would develop possessiveness especially when they are playing with his toys. On household rules, he adapted to basic routines such as wearing his sleepers and using the toilet.
c) Analyze your own parenting philosophy and practices. What principles from social learning theory, Bowlby, Ainsworth, Piaget, Vygotsky, information processing theory, developmental neuroscience and other theories do you appear to have relied on in making your parenting choices or interpreting your child's behavior? Include three principles/theorists from the above list in your answer.
I believe Ainsworth attachment theory was part of my parenting practices. When Brandon felt insecure or uncomfortable, he would run back to me for protection. However, he would run to her mother whenever I caution or surprise her unexpectedly.
Case Study 4 (Early childhood)
a) What activities and experiences you and your child have engaged in might be promoting healthy behavioral practices and an interest in physical activity?
Regular exercises or any physical activity ass the child’s bones and muscle to become stronger. Most activity that we engaged with Brandon was crawling and talking when he was around eight months old. Glowing old, we performed activities such as building blocks with his toys and playing relay games. Significantly, these activities helped Brandon to develop a healthy body and weight.
b) Describe development of your child's language and cognitive skills and discuss how these might be affecting his or her interactions with you & your responses.
Language development is a crucial aspect of every child’s development (Menyuk, Liebergott, & Schultz 2014). While having a conversation, he would speak a full simple sentence. As I encouraged him to ask the meaning of difficult words, our interaction has developed positively.
c) How well is your child adapting to social situations in the home and outside the home? Does your child have any behavior or emotional problems at this point? Why do you think these problems are occurring and what are you doing about them?
At home, Brandon has been adapting to social situations positively. However, outside home, Brandon was initially shy when we enrolled him in pre-school. These problems occurred because he rarely interacted with other children in the neighborhood. To diminish the problem, we encouraged him to visit and play with other kids of his age in the area.
Case Study 5 (Early childhood)
a) How would you characterize your parenting style? How have your specific parenting techniques changed since infancy? In what ways do you think your parenting style, or any other aspect of your parenting, has been influenced by your cultural background or other experiences?
I would describe our parenting style as authoritative. We would punish Brandon after doing something wrong. However, we would offer presents and praises for doing something right. Our cultural and religious background had influenced the parenting style.
b) Describe two specific examples of changes in your child's behavior at age 4 that seem to stem from growth in cognitive and language ability since the period of infancy (e.g., improvements in symbolic thinking, reasoning, knowledge of the world, theory of mind).
Two crucial changes in Brandon’s behavior include knowledge of the world and problem-solving. Brandon tend to ask what is going on with the world while watching the news on the TV. On the other hand, he managed to solve problems such as fixing his toys if they malfunctioned.
c) How would you characterize your child's personality? Would you say that your child is primarily over controlled, under controlled or resilient? Support your argument.
Brandon is resilient. When given a specific task, he would keenly focusing on it. Also, other than being friendly, he followed rules and tend to perform duties without supervision such as cleaning his toys.
Case Study 6 (Early childhood)
a) How well is your child adapting to social situations in the home and outside the home? Does your child have any behavior or emotional problems at this point? Why do you think these problems are occurring and what are you doing about them.
At early age, Brandon was well behaved in and outside the home. At this point, he had no emotional issues and I found it normal for a typical child of his age.
b) Do you notice any improvements in cognitive and language skills since age 4? Give specific examples. Does your child have any special needs with regard to cognitive or language development at this point and what do you plan to do?
Since he attained four years, Brandon has significantly improved in language skills. His memory has developed and could read stories in a book and could do simple mathematics. With regard to development skills, he did not have special needs.
c) Which aspects of your child's behavior and personality reflect continuities from earlier behavior (e.g., at ages 3-4 years) and which seem to be novel for this age level.
On behavioral aspect, Brandon is performing well. Notably, it is an improving trend since he was around 3-4 years. Significantly, Brandon has never had sleeping problems when in good health. This aspect corresponds to the time when he was a baby.
Case Study 7 (6-8 years)
a) How smart is your child, and in what areas? Think back to the blurb on multiple intelligences that appeared at age 6. Find specific evidence regarding your child's verbal, logical-mathematical, spatial, musical and bodily-kinesthetic intelligence from your observations of your own child as well as the psychologist's report at age 8 years, 11 months.
i. Verbal – in school and at home, Brandon rarely got stuck on simple words and likes reading out loud.
ii. Logical-mathematical – at school, Brandon was reported to have less difficulty in mental calculations. At home, he enjoyed counting things in the house and sometimes assisted his friends in math assignments.
iii. Spatial – despite having an interest in school work, Brandon hated drawing and painting. After consulting the psychologist, we were advised to encourage him in drawing as it is consonant with the learning capability.
iv. Musically – it was noted that Brandon did not have musical talent. He rarely sung in school and at home.
v. Bodily-kinesthetic – Brandon’s ability in sports was average. He was enjoyed playing various sports in school and at home.
b) Describe some examples of your child's behavior or thinking that you think are due to typical American gender role socialization and explain why you think so. Several examples can be found at ages 6 and 8. How closely does your attitude toward gender roles correspond to typical American attitudes, and if there is a discrepancy, to what do you attribute this (e.g., cultural background, attitudes of your own parents, etc.)?
Despite being the only child in our family, Brandon was not selective on which gender to interact with. He was noted to enjoy the company of both genders regardless of their age. Fundamentally, his gender attitudes corresponded to typical American where gender socialization is not an issue.
c) How might your child's development have been different if s/he was raised by people with a different socioeconomic, ethnic or cultural background? Base your answer on specific evidence of SES/cultural differences from the textbook and class lectures.
It is crucial to propose that Brandon’s development would be different if parents raised him with diverse cultural, ethnic, or social economic. His perfection verbal and logical-mathematic has been enhanced by enrolling him in a good school. Additionally, his discipline would not have been perfect if he has not been punished for wrongdoing. Notably, most cultural and ethnic backgrounds prohibit physically punishing children.
Case Study 8 (6-11 years)
a) Describe your child's academic skills between ages 6 and 10 and assess how well these skills are developing. The 5th grade report card will be useful for this but you should also incorporate your own observations. What are you doing to help your child?
Since the age of 6, Brandon was perfectly consonant with academic knowledge. Some of the vital skills included verbal, writing, and reading abilities. Additionally, his mental skills were developing since he was 6 years as he could perform complex mental calculations. However, he seemed to lag behind on physical activities. Therefore, we took a point of enrolled him in co-curricular activity classes to get required skills.
b) How well is your child adapting to social situations in the home and outside the home? Does your child have any behavior or emotional problems at this point? Why do you think these problems are occurring and what are you doing about them?
Initially, Brandon was very shy when meeting with strangers outside the home. However, at the age of 8-11 years, he became friendly to people, and he was very respectful to adults. Notably, he had no behavioral problems at that point.
c) Has your parenting changed since the preschool period and if so, why do you think it has changed and what effect might this have on your child? Refer to your textbook or lecture notes for evidence on typical changes in parenting that occur in middle childhood.
Usually, grown up children opportunities are chances to contribute to the family decision making process (Walsh, 2015). It has allowed him to attain independence and perform duties without being told or supervised. The change of parenting has helped him to make his own decisions and encourage him to be more competitive in school.
Case Study 9 (12-18 years)
a) Describe any physical or behavioral signs of incipient puberty.
Brandon is noted to be rebellious and moodier especially towards his mother. Also, he is realized to notice girls in his school where sometimes they would text at night and would not let her mother access his phone.
b) How would you characterize your child at this point in terms of the under-controlled, over-controlled or resilient categories? Have there been any changes since the preschool period and why might they have occurred?
Brandon’s behavior has changed since he was in preschool. Other than being rebellious and moodier, he has developed aggressive behavior. However, it these behaviors have emerged as a result of incipient puberty (Matos, 2017). Despite having these behaviors, I would describe him to be resilient, and he has self-control.
c) Using the 7th grade report card and your own observations, summarize your child's academic skills at this point. What specific activities might promote some of these skills?
Since he was in preschool, Brandon has been performing well in language and mathematics subjects. Significantly, since enrolling him in co-curricular activity part-time classes, he usually performs well in art subjects. Generally, despite having not perfected in art classes, his academic skills are over average. However, it is crucial to propose that the use of computer programs can further boost his academic skills.
Case Study 10 (12-18 years)
a) What activities and experiences at ages 12 and 14 has your teen been involved in that might promote healthy behavioral practices, physical fitness and skill in sports?
Since the age of 12, Brandon has been playing basketball. He has been in school team and his performance has been brilliant. These activities have contributed to both his well-being and physical fitness.
b) Have there been any changes in your teen's behavior toward you or your partner? Why are these occurring and how are you responding?
Brandon is noted to be angry and sometimes argue over irrelevant things. He sometimes confronts his mother when denied visiting his teen friends. Also, he sometimes becomes less cooperative aggressive to small children in the neighborhood. Even though these behaviors occur in every teen’s development, I try to engage him in advisory lectures such as sharing my teenage life stories and experiences.
c) Do you see any examples of how cognitive and physical changes in early adolescence (ages 12-14) relate to your teen's social or emotional behavior?
There are various notable cognitive behaviors with Brandon that are examples of a typical teenager. First, he has positive moral development progress. He is compatible with stage 5 of the post-conventional level. Second, he is having difficulties in the motivation aspect and is unable to focus on school activities. Third, he is realized to seek his identity and sometimes holds talks with people of different beliefs.
Case Study 11 (12-18 years)
a) Think about your teen's cognitive strengths and weaknesses and how they are reflected in his or her school grades and activities from 14-16 years of age. What careers or courses of study might be best suited to your teen's abilities and interests?
At the age of 12-14, Brandon had motivational challenges which are realized to affect his school performance. Despite performing well in sports, his social reasoning was deteriorating. Hence, activities such as social work and counseling boosted his abilities and interests.
b) How important have your teen's relationships with peers been to his/her social development, emotional well-being and school achievement from 14-16 years of age?
Brandon spent most of his free time hanging with his age mates in the neighborhood. Despite developing social behavior, it affected his school performance. He would rarely complete his assignment on time initiating conflicts with his tutors. Emotionally, he was known to react to issues related to his friends strongly and would get irritated when one of his friends is bullied. Generally, his relationship with his peers was only crucial to his emotional well-being.
c) How has your teen adjusted at 14-16 years of age to typical adolescent issues such as risk-taking, drugs, alcohol, and sexual interests, and how have you responded to your teen?
As a typical teen, Brandon has sexual interests. We took a point of discussing with him on sex matter by talking on the importance of contraceptives. Since applying for a driving license, Brandon has attained some driving skills and have never been involved in an accident. He was ever caught drinking alcohol at his friend’s house. Although he did not misbehave, we encouraged him to avoid irresponsible behaviors while with his friends. Importantly, Brandon has never been in any drug abuse activities and always talks of how people should circumvent from using drugs.
Case Study 12 (12-18 years)
a) As the program ends, what pathways does your child appear to be on in terms of physical, cognitive, social, emotional and moral development? To what extent could you have predicted these pathways based on what you knew of your child's earlier development? Describe some specific ways in which you think your parenting mattered for your child's development, based on evidence from the course regarding the contributions of parents to child development.
The fact that he likes playing basketball, I believe Brandon will maintain physical fitness as he progresses to adulthood. By engaging in sports, it has helped him to be social and emotional active. He is free to interact with people of different age and can handle his emotions perfectly. His moral issues developed at an early age as he demonstrated moral understanding. Initially, I could have predicted that Brandon will follow his mother’s pathway of teaching and art social activities.
b) Describe some specific ways in which your child developed that appeared to be influenced by factors outside your control, such as genes, random environmental events or the general influence of contemporary middle-class American culture.
Through authoritative parenting approach, I helped Brandon to find his identity and develop moral knowledge. Furthermore, by encouraging and responding to his interests, it assisted him to pursue his sports talent.
c) Bonus Question: Are there any issues you had with your parents, your school work, your friends, or your romantic involvements in the last year of high school that continued to be issues for you in college? Reflect on your own personality, interests and cognitive abilities at the time you graduated high school. How did these personality characteristics and abilities manifest themselves in subsequent years? How have they changed since your high school days, if at all?
Positively, behaviors and issues I had in high school affected my college experience. Firstly, I tended to go to films every weekend. Although it irritated my parents, I would find a way to sneak with my friends to watch new movies with my friends. The behavior affected my school work performance negatively including the final exam results. My relationship with my parents and friends deteriorated when I joined the college as I could not perform well either. Since high school graduation, my personality has changed rapidly. I rarely go to movies as I feel they almost ruined my future. However, I still think social activities are stronger aspects of life.
Ainsworth, M. S. (1989). Attachments beyond infancy. American psychologist, 44(4), 709.
Bowlby, J. (1977). The making and breaking of affectional bonds: I. Aetiology and psychopathology in the light of attachment theory. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 130(3), 201-210.
Matos, A. P., Salvador, M. C., Costa, J. J., Pinheiro, M. R., Arnarson, E., & Craighead, W. E. (2017). The relationship between internalizing and externalizing problems in adolescence: does gender make a difference?
Menyuk, P., Liebergott, J. W., & Schultz, M. C. (2014). Early language development in full-term and premature infants. Psychology Press.
Walsh, F. (2015). Strengthening family resilience. Guilford Publications.
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