strategies in communication

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Communication apprehension (CA) is one of the most important principles in the communication discipline, with researchers focusing primarily on interpersonal communication. Communication anxiety was discovered in 1968 by communication researchers who proposed that it is a broad term that includes the tension and discomfort that comes with any type of contact. This type of contact occurs when a person feels anxiety or apprehension as a result of an imminent or actual interaction with other people. As a result, such complications may arise when one plans to engage in a serious communication soon or when one has a chance encounter. In reality, CA will compel one to refrain from interacting. This research essay focuses on how the problem affects one’s communication and offers a solution on how to establish interpersonal communication.

A person suffering from CA contributes little or nothing at all in communication situations so as to avoid upset or the feeling of anxiety. He or she thinks of communication as a punishment. However, a person with little CA will look for alternatives to involve in interaction as he views it to be enjoyable. CA levels vary from high, moderate and low and vary from one person to another according to the CA relevance, for instance, one may experience communication nervousness during a job interview or when in a meeting.

Self-disclosure is when one reveals his or her personal information to another person, and it improves a person’s personality. Self-disclosure helps improve interpersonal intimacy and trust (Derlaga & Berg, 2014).

Impression and perceptions significantly determine the compatibility of a relationship. When people meet, they may exchange glances, exchange smiles or even initiate a dialogue. The recipe for a healthy communication is one person taking the initiative to contact another person and the other to reply in the same manner, thus contributing to create a connection. To create a positive first impression, one has to consider using the four perceptual methods of perception, schemas, stereotypes and prototypes not forgetting the principles of implicit personality theory.


Perception is dynamic and involves choosing, organizing and interpreting the world around us. One can use his or her senses to become aware of the events, people, objects and messages around. One cannot fully satisfy every day’s expectations, but perception allows him/her to make sense of and organize what he or she encounters through the senses. Perception involves the following three steps

Selection; attending to something that draws one’s senses

Organization; arranging information that one has so as to make sense.

iii)Interpretation; subjecting explanation and meaning to the activities that one has selected and organized.

Selective perception

Directing one’s attention to attend to some stimuli and disregarding other stimuli. Such stimuli can be due to physical beauty, beliefs, preferences or values.


Schemas are organized pool of information on a subject stored in one’s memory from past experiences. Such information forms a foundation for making informed decisions.


Stereotyping involves using predictions and broad generalization to make a judgment.


A prototype represents a person who uses his or her mental image of someone or something else such as behavior or attitudes to create an ideal image he or she wants.

Impression depends on credibility, dominance, likeability and interpersonal attractiveness. Once people have good impression about each other, they establish a rapport which ensures they can communicate without any inhibition. Establishing rapport depends on being confident, conveying confidence, showing care and being considerate. After the establishment of rapport, it is easier for parties to contact and exchange information at free will without any difficulty.

In conclusion, starting and maintain communication proves to be hard and difficult. However, one has to break the barrier of communication apprehension so as to create a stronger bond for better communication.

Read also: Where to get fast lab report help?


Bevan, J. L., & Sole, K. (2014). Making Connections: Understanding interpersonal communication (2nd Ed.) New York: John Wiley & Sons,

Derlaga, Valerian J., & Berg, John H. (2014). Self-disclosure: Theory, Research, and Therapy. Springer-Verlag.

September 21, 2021

Health Sociology

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